معنى كلمة tabiat

خواص دارویی و گیاهی

معنى كلمة tabiat
معنى كلمة tabiat

قواعد


This week I _________ a book about serial killers.

ابدأ اللّعبة الآن

اخي الزائر الكريم , اذا اعجبتك الصفحة نرجو منك نشرها على الفيسبوك او تويتر او قوقل بلس لكي يراها اصدقاءك ومعارفك وبذلك سوف يتعرفون على اهتماماتك واطلاعاتك وقد يشاركونك اراءهم ويبادلونك اهتماماتهم

لكي تبقى على اطلاع دائم بجديد الموقع من الدروس والبرامج والتحديثات , تابعنا على مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي

english-learning Tutorials

the meaning of celery

definition and translation of probe

معنى كلمة tabiat

article about spring in english

popular illnesses in english

secrets of learning english for beginners

feeling happy or in a good mood

definition and translation of preamble

daily expressions

the definition of bold

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{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654157’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195466’, size: [728, 90] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971080’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘346693’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479710’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101656’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_leftslot’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [160, 600] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162036’, zoneId: ‘776140’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654149’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195464’, size: [160, 600] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971066’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘346698’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479703’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101594’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_btmslot_a’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } },
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{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘194852’, size: [300, 250] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971063’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
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{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101592’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_rightslot’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [300, 250] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162036’, zoneId: ‘776156’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654156’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195465’, size: [300, 250] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971079’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘387232’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479700’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101607’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_contentslot_1’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [336, 280]] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162036’, zoneId: ‘776142’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654150’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195452’, size: [300, 250] }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195452’, size: [336, 280] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971067’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘446383’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479707’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6623862’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101595’ }}]}];
var pbDesktopSlots = [
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{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654157’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195466’, size: [728, 90] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971080’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘346693’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479710’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101656’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_leftslot’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [160, 600] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162036’, zoneId: ‘776140’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654149’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195464’, size: [160, 600] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971066’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘346698’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479703’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101594’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_btmslot_a’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162036’, zoneId: ‘776130’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11653860’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘194852’, size: [300, 250] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971063’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘346688’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479718’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101592’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_rightslot’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [300, 250] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162036’, zoneId: ‘776156’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654156’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195465’, size: [300, 250] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971079’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘387232’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479700’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101607’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_contentslot_1’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [336, 280]] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162036’, zoneId: ‘776142’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654150’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195452’, size: [300, 250] }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195452’, size: [336, 280] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971067’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘446383’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479707’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
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{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101595’ }}]}];
var pbTabletSlots = [
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bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162036’, zoneId: ‘776160’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654157’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195466’, size: [728, 90] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971080’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘346693’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479710’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101656’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_btmslot_a’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162036’, zoneId: ‘776130’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11653860’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘194852’, size: [300, 250] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971063’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘346688’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479718’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101592’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_rightslot’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [300, 250] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162036’, zoneId: ‘776156’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654156’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195465’, size: [300, 250] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971079’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘387232’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479700’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101607’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_contentslot_1’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [336, 280]] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162036’, zoneId: ‘776142’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654150’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195452’, size: [300, 250] }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195452’, size: [336, 280] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971067’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘446383’ }},
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{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101595’ }}]}];
var pbMobileSlots = [
{code: ‘ad_topslot_a’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [320, 50] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162050’, zoneId: ‘776358’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654208’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195467’, size: [320, 50] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971081’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘387233’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479701’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101657’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_btmslot_a’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162050’, zoneId: ‘776336’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654174’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195451’, size: [300, 250] }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195451’, size: [320, 50] }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195451’, size: [300, 50] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971065’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘446381’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘446382’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479709’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479722’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479720’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101593’ }}]},
{code: ‘ad_contentslot_1’, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 100], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } },
bids: [{ bidder: ‘rubicon’, params: { accountId: ‘17282’, siteId: ‘162050’, zoneId: ‘776338’ }},
{ bidder: ‘appnexus’, params: { placementId: ‘11654189’ }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195453’, size: [300, 250] }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195453’, size: [320, 100] }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195453’, size: [320, 50] }},
{ bidder: ‘ix’, params: { siteId: ‘195453’, size: [300, 50] }},
{ bidder: ‘openx’, params: { unit: ‘539971068’, delDomain: ‘idm-d.openx.net’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘446385’ }},
{ bidder: ‘sovrn’, params: { tagid: ‘446384’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479724’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479694’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘aol’, params: { placement: ‘6479699’, network: ‘4832.1’, server: ‘adserver.adtech.de’ }},
{ bidder: ‘criteo’, params: { zoneId: ‘1101596’ }}]}];
var pbjs = pbjs || {};
pbjs.que = pbjs.que || [];

const customGranularity = {
‘buckets’: [{
‘min’: 0,
‘max’: 3,
‘increment’: 0.01,
‘cap’: true
},{
‘min’: 3.05,
‘max’: 8,
‘increment’: 0.05,
‘cap’: true
},{
‘min’: 8.50,
‘max’: 30,
‘increment’: 0.5,
‘cap’: true
},{
‘min’: 31,
‘max’: 36,
‘increment’: 1,
‘cap’: true
}]
};
pbjsCfg = {
userSync: { syncsPerBidder: 50 },
priceGranularity: customGranularity,
maxRequestsPerOrigin: 1,
enableSendAllBids: false,
timeoutBuffer: 400,
bidderSequence: “fixed”
};
pbjsCfg.consentManagement = {
cmpApi: 14,
timeout: 200,
allowAuctionWithoutConsent: true
};
pbjs.que.push(function() {
pbjs.setConfig(pbjsCfg);
});

var pbAdUnits = getPrebidSlots(curResolution);
var googletag = googletag || {};
googletag.cmd = googletag.cmd || [];
googletag.cmd.push(function() {
googletag.pubads().disableInitialLoad();
});
if(window.__cmp)
{
window.__cmp(‘setConsentUiCallback’, function () {
addPrebidAdUnits(pbAdUnits);
});
}

var dfpSlots = {};
(function() {
var gads = document.createElement(‘script’);
gads.async = true;
gads.type = ‘text/javascript’;
var useSSL = ‘https:’ == document.location.protocol;
gads.src = (useSSL ? ‘https:’ : ‘http:’) +’//www.googletagservices.com/tag/js/gpt.js’;
var node = document.getElementsByTagName(‘script’)[0];
node.parentNode.insertBefore(gads, node);
})();
googletag.cmd.push(function() {
var mapping_topslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], []).addSize([0, 0], [320, 50]).build();
dfpSlots[‘topslot_a’] = googletag.defineSlot(‘/2863368/topslot’, [], ‘ad_topslot_a’).defineSizeMapping(mapping_topslot_a).setTargeting(‘vp’, ‘top’).setTargeting(‘hp’, ‘center’).setTargeting(‘ad_group’, Adomik.randomAdGroup()).addService(googletag.pubads());
var mapping_topslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [728, 90]).addSize([0, 0], []).build();
dfpSlots[‘topslot_b’] = googletag.defineSlot(‘/2863368/topslot’, [728, 90], ‘ad_topslot_b’).defineSizeMapping(mapping_topslot_b).setTargeting(‘vp’, ‘top’).setTargeting(‘hp’, ‘center’).setTargeting(‘ad_group’, Adomik.randomAdGroup()).addService(googletag.pubads());
var mapping_leftslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([963, 0], [160, 600]).addSize([0, 0], []).build();
dfpSlots[‘leftslot’] = googletag.defineSlot(‘/2863368/leftslot’, [160, 600], ‘ad_leftslot’).defineSizeMapping(mapping_leftslot).setTargeting(‘vp’, ‘top’).setTargeting(‘hp’, ‘left’).setTargeting(‘ad_group’, Adomik.randomAdGroup()).addService(googletag.pubads());
var mapping_btmslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250], ‘fluid’]).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50], ‘fluid’]).build();
dfpSlots[‘btmslot_a’] = googletag.defineSlot(‘/2863368/btmslot’, [[300, 250], ‘fluid’], ‘ad_btmslot_a’).defineSizeMapping(mapping_btmslot_a).setTargeting(‘vp’, ‘btm’).setTargeting(‘hp’, ‘center’).setTargeting(‘ad_group’, Adomik.randomAdGroup()).addService(googletag.pubads());
var mapping_houseslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([963, 0], [300, 250]).addSize([0, 0], []).build();
dfpSlots[‘houseslot_a’] = googletag.defineSlot(‘/2863368/houseslot’, [300, 250], ‘ad_houseslot_a’).defineSizeMapping(mapping_houseslot_a).setTargeting(‘vp’, ‘mid’).setTargeting(‘hp’, ‘right’).setTargeting(‘ad_group’, Adomik.randomAdGroup()).addService(googletag.pubads());
var mapping_houseslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([963, 0], []).addSize([0, 0], [300, 250]).build();
dfpSlots[‘houseslot_b’] = googletag.defineSlot(‘/2863368/houseslot’, [], ‘ad_houseslot_b’).defineSizeMapping(mapping_houseslot_b).setTargeting(‘vp’, ‘btm’).setTargeting(‘hp’, ‘center’).setTargeting(‘ad_group’, Adomik.randomAdGroup()).addService(googletag.pubads());
var mapping_rightslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [300, 250]).addSize([0, 0], []).build();
dfpSlots[‘rightslot’] = googletag.defineSlot(‘/2863368/rightslot’, [300, 250], ‘ad_rightslot’).defineSizeMapping(mapping_rightslot).setTargeting(‘vp’, ‘mid’).setTargeting(‘hp’, ‘right’).setTargeting(‘ad_group’, Adomik.randomAdGroup()).addService(googletag.pubads());
var mapping_contentslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250], [336, 280], ‘fluid’]).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 250], [320, 100], [320, 50], [300, 50], ‘fluid’]).build();
dfpSlots[‘contentslot_1’] = googletag.defineSlot(‘/2863368/mpuslot’, [[300, 250], [336, 280], ‘fluid’], ‘ad_contentslot_1’).defineSizeMapping(mapping_contentslot).setTargeting(‘cdo_si’, ‘1’).setTargeting(‘vp’, ‘mid’).setTargeting(‘hp’, ‘center’).setTargeting(‘ad_group’, Adomik.randomAdGroup()).addService(googletag.pubads());
googletag.pubads().addEventListener(‘slotRenderEnded’, function(event) { if (!event.isEmpty } });

googletag.pubads().setTargeting(‘ad_h’, Adomik.hour);
googletag.pubads().setTargeting(“cdo_pc”, “dictionary”);
googletag.pubads().setTargeting(“cdo_pt”, “entry”);
googletag.pubads().setTargeting(“cdo_ptl”, “entry-lcp”);
googletag.pubads().setTargeting(“cdo_dc”, “english”);
googletag.pubads().setTargeting(“cdo_ei”, “habit”);
googletag.pubads().setTargeting(“cdo_c”, [“science_geographic_locales”, “people_society_religion”, “beauty_health_fitness”]);
googletag.pubads().setTargeting(“cdo_t”, “drugs”);
googletag.pubads().setTargeting(“cdo_l”, “en”);
googletag.pubads().setTargeting(“cdo_tc”, “resp”);

if(pl_p)
googletag.pubads().setTargeting(‘cdo_alc_pr’, pl_p.split(“|”));

googletag.pubads().setCategoryExclusion(‘lcp’).setCategoryExclusion(‘resp’).setCategoryExclusion(‘wprod’);

googletag.pubads().setTargeting(“ad_pers”, “2”);
googletag.pubads().setRequestNonPersonalizedAds(0);

googletag.pubads().set(“page_url”, “https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/habit”);
googletag.pubads().enableSingleRequest();
googletag.pubads().collapseEmptyDivs(false);
googletag.enableServices();
});

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Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English

Click on the arrows to change the translation direction.

B1 [ C or U ] something that you do often and regularly, sometimes without knowing that you are doing it:

معنى كلمة tabiat

B2 [ C ] something annoying that someone often does:

B2 [ C ] a strong physical need to keep taking a particular drug:

More examples

Thesaurus: synonyms and related words


Habitual behaviour

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You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics:

› [ C ] a special piece of long clothing worn by monks and nuns

Thesaurus: synonyms and related words

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› a particular act or way of acting that you tend to do regularly:

(Definition of “habit” from the Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary © Cambridge University Press)

 See all examples of habit

重複的行爲, 習慣, 壞習慣,毛病…

習慣, 癖…

habitude, accoutumance, (par) habitude…

costum…

عادة…

zvyk, háv, šat…

vane, sædvane, ordensdragt…

costumbre…

kebiasaan, pakaian…

นิสัย, กิจวัตร, เสื้อผ้า…

thói quen, tập quán, áo choàng của thầy tu…

zwyczaj, nawyk, nałóg…

tabiat, kebiasaan, jubah rahib…

alışkanlık, huy, kötü alışkanlık…

die Gewohnheit, die Kleidung…

vane, misbruk, (sed)vane…

습관…

hábito, costume…

重复的行为, 习惯, 坏习惯,毛病…

معنى كلمة tabiat

abitudine, abito…

привычка, зависимость, ряса…

costumbre, hábito…

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landfill

the process of getting rid of large amounts of rubbish by burying it, or a place where rubbish is buried

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Tangy, tart and fruity: talking about flavours

July 03, 2019

New Words


flat white economy noun


July 01, 2019

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The replacing of loanwords in Turkish is part of a policy of Turkification dating back to the Ottoman Empire. Contemporary Turkish includes Ottoman Turkish loanwords—mostly of Persian and French, but also Arabic, Greek, and Italian origin—which were officially replaced with their Turkish counterparts suggested by the Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu, TDK) as a part of the cultural reforms—in the broader framework of Atatürk’s Reforms—following the foundation of Republic of Turkey.

The TDK, established by Atatürk in 1932 in order to conduct research on the Turkish language, also undertook the initiative to replace only Arabic loanwords with their Turkish counterparts. The Association succeeded in removing several hundred Arabic words from the language. While most of the words introduced into the language in this process were newly derived from existing Turkish verbal roots, TDK also suggested using old Turkish words which had not been used in the language for centuries; like yanıt, birey, gözgü. Some words were used before language reform too but they were used much less than the Persian ones. Some words were taken from rural areas but most of them had different meanings, like ürün. Mongolian also played an important role too, because Mongolian preserved the old Turkic borrowings, such as ulus and çağ.

There are generational differences in vocabulary preference. While those born before the 1940s tend to use the old Arabic-origin words (even the obsolete ones), younger generations commonly use the newer expressions. Some new words have not been widely adopted, in part because they failed to convey the intrinsic meanings of their old equivalents. Many new words have taken up somewhat different meanings, and cannot necessarily be used interchangeably with their old counterpart.

Many of the loanwords (especially the Arabic, Persian and French ones) are still widely used today, though decreasing in tendency.

Historically, Arabic was the language of the mosque and Persian was the language of education. Its deliberate usage (eschewing the usage of a “western” word) often implies romanticism or a religious subtext, respectively. Similarly, the use of European words may be favored to impart a perceived “modern” character. The use of “pure Turkic” words may be employed as an expression of nationalism or as a linguistic “simplification”.

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The 2005 edition of Güncel Türkçe Sözlük, the official dictionary of the Turkish language published by Turkish Language Association, contains 104,481 words, of which about 86% are Turkish and 14% are of foreign origin.[1] Among the most significant foreign contributors to Turkish vocabulary are Arabic, Persian, French,
Italian, English, and Greek.[2]

Most of the new Turkish words are derived from other words with thematic suffixes. For example:

bat- is the root of the verb batmak, which means “to sink” or “to set”. The derived word batı means “west” or the cardinal direction in which the sun “sinks”. Another example would be aylık, which means “salary” as well as monthly. This is derived from the word ay, which means “moon, month”.

Here are some other examples of derivations:

Some of the Turkish words are also compound words, such as:

For more information, see the related article: Turkish vocabulary.

The list gives the Ottoman Turkish word, the modern spelling of the word in Turkish (as suggested by TDK), the modern Turkish equivalent, and its meaning in English.
Arabs also used the following words as loanwords for their language.

* Old words that are still used in modern Turkish together with their new Turkish counterparts.
** New words that are not as frequently used as the old words.

The Turkish word is very common, but is only used to link nouns, and can normally be translated as with.

The French words started to infiltrate the Turkish language in the 1800s, when the administrative reforms (Tanzimat) started taking place in the Ottoman Empire. The extent of French influence was so much that the number of French loanwords was close to 5,000.

Most of the French loanwords are still widely used in today’s Turkish.

* Words that are still used in modern Turkish together with their new Turkish counterparts.

The list gives the Ottoman Turkish word, the modern spelling of the word in Turkish (as suggested by TDK), the modern Turkish equivalent, and its meaning in English.

Most of the original Persian words are still widely used in modern Turkish. In fact, there are over 1,500 Persian words in Turkish. However, for many of the Persian words (unlike Arabic words[citation needed]), there is no TDK-prescribed equivalent. TDK did not put as much effort into replacing Persian words as it did for Arabic words[citation needed], largely because the Persian words were better assimilated into the language.[citation needed] Arabic language and culture is general perceived by Turks to be more “foreign” than Persian language and culture, which had a native presence in Anatolia since the time of the Achaemenids, and was patronised for millennia afterwards by other dynasties with a presence in Anatolia such as the Sasanians, Seleucids, Seljuks, Sultanate of Rum, and lastly, the Ottomans, amongst others.

* New words that are not as frequently used as the old words.

* Words that are still used in modern Turkish together with their new Turkish counterparts.

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